Windows Phone navigation workarounds

Silverlight for Windows Phone has adopted a navigation mechanism reminiscent of a web browser. Each page is authored as a separate resource. The application issues commands to a NavigationService to move from one page to the next. The phone even has a hardware back button. This choice of web-like navigation causes no end of difficulties to application developers.

Navigation in Windows Phone starts with a URI. But rather than identifying an HTML resource, this URI identifies a XAML resource. The application doesn’t create pages; it just identifies them. The runtime creates each page based on the given URI. This causes three problems.

  • Parameters
  • View model location
  • Back-stack modification


The URI must contain all of the information required to construct the page. For the main page of the application, this is usually fine. Just bring up the XAML representation of the main menu. But subsequent pages often drill down into detail. If the main page displays a list of articles, and we want to bring up a specific article when the user taps, then we have to identify the article in the URI. All of the article links target the same XAML resource. It’s the data that differs.

To differentiate the links, many developers take the typical web-based approach. They add query string parameters to the URL. Chris Koenig gives an excellent example of parameter-passing. The Silverlight NavigationContext object exposes these parameters via the QueryString property, specifically for this purpose.

The problem with query string parameters is that they requires an application to drop down to string-based identification, rather than rely upon direct object access. To generate the query string, an application has to extract an ID from an object. To consume the query string, it has to look that ID up in an object model. It usually ends up getting right back to the object that it started with. Wouldn’t it be easier to use that object reference directly?

The web was designed for stateless operation. Each request is isolated from the ones that came before. No objects are assumed to be kept on the server for the user’s next request. Each request must contain enough information to reload those objects and generate the required page. This is what allows the web to scale.

But the phone isn’t like a stateless web server. It has rich object state. It exists to serve just one user. It can afford to load objects into memory, and use references among those objects as that user navigates through the application. To drop down to a string only to come back to the same object is not taking full advantage of the platform. What’s good for the web is not necessarily good for the phone.

View model location

The second problem is pairing a view model with a view. Since navigation is based on identifying the view, Windows Phone forces you into a view-first approach. The view is left with the responsibility of finding its view model. To complicate matters, the view must sometimes pass its query string parameters to the view model. The view model uses the parameters to find a reference to the model object.

A common solution to this problem is the view model locator pattern. A view model locator is a single-instance object registered as an application resource. Each view binds its DataContext to a property of this resource, which is an instance of a view model.

        <vm:ViewModelLocator x:Key="Locator"/>

public class ViewModelLocator
    private readonly MainViewModel _main;

    public ViewModelLocator()
        _main = new MainViewModel();

    public MainViewModel Main
        get { return _main; }
<UserControl x:Class="ToDoList.MainPage"
    DataContext="{Binding Main, Source={StaticResource Locator}}">

The biggest problem with the view model locator pattern is that it treats view models as singletons. Since the view model locator is an application resource, there is only one instance serving all of the view models. And since each view data binds to a property, the view model locator can only have one instance of each view model. It is not a view model factory. There is no way to pass query string parameters to a method in order to construct an instance of a view model. You have to write code in the view to pass the parameters to the view model in its DataContext. That one and only instance of the view model must be able to change its behavior to point to a different model instance every time the user navigates.

Back-stack modification

The third problem is removing pages from the back-stack. Some interactions have intermediate steps: the user logs in before seeing content, or a wizard guides a user through a multi-page process to achieve a result. When the user has completed these intermediate steps, they don’t want to return to them. If they have completed the steps prior to reaching the main menu (as in the login example), then they want to exit the application when they hit back from the main menu. They don’t want to see the login screen again. Or if the intermediate steps occur after the main page (as in the wizard example), then they want to return to the main page when they are finished. These intermediate pages should be popped off the stack.

Unfortunately, the Windows Phone OS is completely in charge of the back-stack. It keeps track of each URI that the user visits, and returns to past URIs when they hit the back button. There is no API for removing a URI from the stack. We are left with a couple of hacks. To skip intermediate pages at the beginning of the stack (login), we can exit the application prematurely by throwing an unhandled exception. To skip pages later in the stack (wizard), we can bounce to each intermediate page in the main page’s OnNavigatedTo. Neither solution is particularly appealing.


The Windows Phone navigation system is based on the web metaphor. Unfortunately, the web is the wrong model for a single-user device. The decision to model navigation in this way has caused phone applications to act like web pages. The intent was to bring a well-understood interaction language to the phone. But in practice, it just forced application developers to work around the shortcomings of a misappropriated model.

This decision leads developers into a view-first approach, rather than beginning with the view model. It forces developers to convert object references to strings, only to convert them back into object references. And it requires ugly hacks to produce even the simplest of interactions. If you write Windows Phone apps, prepare to use these workarounds.

2 Responses to “Windows Phone navigation workarounds”

  1. Michael Says:

    Switch to Android. :)

  2. Michael L Perry Says:

    Thanks, Michael. I have done some Android development, and plan on creating more apps for both platforms in the future.

    Unfortunately, Android pioneered web-inspired navigation on the phone. The metaphor doesn't work any better on that platform, so you end up doing similar workarounds.

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